Coralie - E-flat Instruments
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How long do you think your performance will last? I guess: not longer than a second or three If a flute player sees the note C and plays it, you will indeed hear the note C, for flute is a non-transposing instrument. But if a B-flat clarinet player sees the note C and plays it, you actually don't hear a real C, but a B-flat. The pitch of the note sounds a whole note lower than notated. As long as the clarinet player plays alone, or together with other B-flat instruments, it doesn't matter, but when a clarinet player wants to play along with a non transposing instrument, like a flute, a piano, a keyboard, a violin, or other C-instruments, than he should copy down his music on a separate sheet of paper and transpose it into another key, for only then it will fit together, only then will it sound well together with the other instruments.
How to do this exactly we will learn below. So: Don't do that! If you do, you will find out it really is not difficult. How to find out whether your instrument is a transposing instrument or not. Play a C on your instrument and compare the sound of it with a C played on a piano. If you discover that the note which was notated as a C for your instrument happens to be a B-flat on the piano, then you know your instrument is a B-flat instrument. Is the C you played on your instrument an A on the piano? Then you have an A-instrument. You still can't find out?
Ask your music teacher, or another person who plays the same instrument you do. You now know to which key you have to transpose? We need to transpose the violin melody to make it possible to play it on our E-flat instrument.
So, take a sheet of music paper, a pencil and an eraser, then we can start. Click here to print blank staff paper.
Learn to Transpose, Step by Step
You can't just copy out the flat, for we're going to write in another key, so we also need different flats or sharps than we had in our original music. The first question we'll have to ask ourself is: Which key signature do we need? In the example above we see one flat, this will become two sharps for an E-flat-instrument. So write on your sheet of staff paper a G-clef, the two sharps f-sharp and c-sharp and the time signature. Therefore you look at the table below. Search on the left column for the sharps or flats as you find them in the original music, then you will find the key signature you need on the right for your E-flat instrument.
Write down three sharps: F-sharp C-sharp and G-sharp. One flat in the original music? Write down two sharps: F-sharp and C-sharp. Two flats in the original music? Write down one sharp: F-sharp. Three flats in the original music? Write down one flat: B-flat. Five flats in the original music?
Category:B-flat instruments - Wikipedia
Write down two flats: B-flat, E-flat. Six flats in the original music? Write down three flats: B-flat, E-flat, A-flat. Coralie suffered from a low optical efficiency. We identified two main components to be responsible for this low efficiency: The optical fiber which feed the instrument and the cross-disperser prism-grism assembly. Following changes have been made to the instrument:. However, the functionality to swap between the fibers with and without scrambler has been removed. In practise, the fiber-swap functionality and mechanisms on both the fiber-head bonnette and the spectrograph side have been completely removed.
A spare fiber with scrambler is installed next to the standard fiber, but is NOT connected. The consequences are that the deviation angle is now of 90 degrees, and that therefore the cryostat containing the CCD is placed vertically on the spectrograph. This has several consequences: a The exposure meter is much more efficient than before. Due to the change of the cross-disperser, the spectral format has completely changed.
The orders are not equally spaced anymore, instead the blue orders are more separated than the red orders. In addition the focal filter on the CCD has been removed. Altogether results in a spectrum ranging 2 to 3 orders longer on the blue side while keeing the red boundary unchanged. No contamination is present anymore on the blue side by the second order of the grism. Ghosts grism and rings around the emission lines parasitics reflections by the focal filter have disappeared. In the following image, a raw LOCO frame is shown, with the blue orders on top:.
The spectral format of the reference fiber ciel is slightly different. The DARK has been measured to 1. The efficiency of the spectrograph has increased by a factor of higher than 4 in average. The gain in optical through-put is shown in the following plot:. When the star is decentered with respect to the fiber hole see e.
Magnitude and sign of this error depend on the de-centering direction and magnitude, and on the seeing conditions. The design of the exposure meter has been changed. Following new properties apply:. The shutter measures therefore the flux entering the fiber continuously. This feature can e. However, the general operating mode uses two fiber illumination for simultaneous wavelength calibration, where the corresponding spectral orders are separated by at least 17 pixel on the detector.
Some of the echelle orders and the corresponding central wavelength are shown with an arrow. Thus, the useful orders that can be extracted are from order to 66; the orders below 66 are too close and may suffer from interorder contaminations. The spectral resolution was determined between orders and 87 using ThAr lines.
A detailed resolution map in these redder wavelengths will be possible in the near future using ThNe or UNe spectral lamps. Portion of raw image for ThAr-ThAr exposure left panel and stellar exposure with simultaneous ThAr calibration right panel. The x -axis is in pixels and represents the actual CCD scale; the left y -axis is in orders and represents the portion of the chip underlying extracted spectra.
For illustrative purposes, the orders are shown only in one dimension removing echelle order curvature. The resolution scale is shown on the right side. From each order, some five to six clearly resolved thorium lines have been used to measure the spectrograph resolution. The Mount Abu telescope reflectivity is measured periodically using a white-light reflectometer.
Typical exposure times on these sources were 10 minutes, except in the case of HD , where it was 15 minutes.
The sky conditions were similar for both observations, with seeing of 1. Further investigation into the source of such variation may be needed.
The same effect is also seen in Fig. Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Other editions. Enlarge cover. Error rating book.
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Jane Yarbough. This is a comprehensive band method in 3 parts, which combines a strong performance-centred approach with music theory, music history, ear training, listening, composition, improvisation and interdisciplinary and multicultural studies. With full colour drawings and colour-coding of important text the series helps to motivate and inform, across the full range of band instru This is a comprehensive band method in 3 parts, which combines a strong performance-centred approach with music theory, music history, ear training, listening, composition, improvisation and interdisciplinary and multicultural studies.
With full colour drawings and colour-coding of important text the series helps to motivate and inform, across the full range of band instruments. Get A Copy. Sheet music , 48 pages. More Details Original Title. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Standard Of Excellence , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about Standard Of Excellence. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews.