Spring Enterprise Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach (Experts Voice in Open Source)

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The consumer sometimes called the user is the person actually interacting with the IT or digital service. The customer is a source of revenue for the service. If the service is part of a profit center, the customer is the person actually purchasing the product e. If the service is part of a cost center e. The sponsor is the person who authorizes and controls the funding used to construct and operate the service. Depending on the service type, these roles can be filled by the same or different people.

Here are some examples:. The bank and restaurant both had clear motivation for supporting a better online experience, and people now expect that service organizations provide this. The bank experiences less customer turnover and increased likelihood that customers add additional services. The restaurant sees increased traffic and smoother flow from more efficient reservations. Both see increased competitiveness. The traffic application is a somewhat different story. While it is an engineering marvel, there is still some question as to how to fund it long term.

It requires a large user base to operate, and yet end consumers of the service are unlikely to pay for it. At this writing, the service draws on advertising dollars from businesses wishing to advertise to passersby, and also sells its real-time data on traffic patterns to a variety of customers, such as developers considering investments along given routes. As you consider embarking on a journey of IT or digital value, you need to orient to your surroundings and create an initial proposal or plan for how you will proceed.

If you are actually a startup, you need a business plan. If you are working as an intrapreneur in a larger organization, you will still need some kind of formal proposal. This section describes some tools and thinking approaches that may be useful at this very earliest stage. There are more focused, product-specific approaches in the Chapter 4 section on product discovery techniques.

Roughly, such services can be:. Directly market- and consumer-facing e. Customers do not interact directly with such systems, but customer-facing representatives do, and problems with such systems may be readily apparent to the end customer. Especially when products are not market-facing, we start to run into the problem of distinguishing discovery versus design , as we discuss below.

As you start to think about digital value, you must think about the context for your startup or product idea. What is the likelihood of its being adopted? Where is the customer base in terms of its willingness to adopt the innovation? On the contrary, innovativeness, if measured properly, is a continuous variable and there are no sharp breaks or discontinuities between adjacent adopter categories although there are important differences between them.

The idea of technology diffusion frames the problem for us, but we need more. Another related and well known categorization of competitive strategies comes from Michael Treacy and Fred Wiersma [ ]:. The canvas is then used in collaborative planning, e. Mobile bank account access? Osterwalder and his colleagues, in Business Model Generation and the follow-up Value Proposition Design [ ], suggest a wide variety of imaginative and creative approaches to developing business models and value propositions, in terms of patterns, processes, design approaches, and overall strategy. There are a wide variety of analysis techniques for making a business case at a more detailed level.

A primary theme of this book is that empirical, experimental approaches are essential to digital management. These techniques can be useful for that purpose. However, once you have some indication there might be business value in a given idea, applying Lean Startup techniques may be more valuable than continuing to analyze. Lean Startup is a philosophy of entrepreneurship developed by Eric Ries [ ]. It is not specific to IT; rather, it is broadly applicable to all attempts to understand a product and its market.

According to our definition of product management a workable market position is essential to any product. The idea of the Lean Startup has had profound influence on product design, including market-facing and even internal IT systems. It is grounded in Agile concepts such as:. Repeating this cycle frequently is the essential process of building a successful startup whatever the digital proportion. Flowcharts such as the one shown are often seen to describe the Lean Startup process. For example, the ability for banks to hold money as electronic bits on a computer is rooted in the earliest history of banking and the emergence of centralized settlement and clearing mechanisms.

Cell phone companies rely on international treaties, and national laws and regulations allocating radio spectrum. Patent and copyright law support the market for commercial software. The existence of physical voice and data connectivity relies on laws supporting utility easements and rights of way, and even treaties such as the Law of the Sea. How is it that undersea cables remain unmolested? More broadly, the entire technological infrastructure relies on education, easily disrupted supply chains, market demand, and a functioning economy.

The institutions that produce these highly educated practitioners are not easily or quickly scaled. In this chapter, we discussed the basic questions of IT value and how it is experienced and developed. Through the mechanism of a hypothetical modern IT user, we covered at a very high level the necessary ingredients of the IT experience. We also discussed a high-level lifecycle model for IT applications and services, and explored some initial definitions for user, customer, and sponsor — critical distinctions to make in an age of digital transformation.

That should always remain at the top of your mind as you proceed in your IT education. Read the Wikipedia articles on mainframe computing and Amazon Web Services and discuss with your team. What has changed in computing? What remains the same? Go to any popular online service Facebook, Netflix, Flickr, etc. There may be several. On your own or with a team, develop an idea for an IT-based product you could take to market. Present to the class. Research and apply one of the business case analysis techniques to your idea.

Code , Charles Petzold. The Information, James Glieck. The Lean Startup , Ries. Working the Land and the Data.

Outside-in software development. As mentioned in the Part introduction, you cannot start developing a product until you decide what you will build it with. You may have a difficult time writing an app for a mobile phone if you choose the COBOL programming language! You also need to understand something of how computers are operated, enough so that you can make decisions on how your system will run.

Most startups choose to run IT services on infrastructure owned by a cloud computing provider, but there are other options. Configuring your base platform is one of the most important capabilities you will need to develop. The basis of modern configuration management is version control , which we cover here. This is one of the more technical chapters. Supplementary reading may be required for those completely unfamiliar with computing.

Understand the importance and basic practices of version control and why it applies to infrastructure management. In the previous chapter, you were introduced to the concept of a "moment of truth" , and in the final exercises, asked to think of a product idea. Some part of that product requires writing software, or at least configuring some IT system. IT being defined as in Chapter 1. You presumably have some resources time and money. Before you can start writing code, you need to decide how and where it will run. This means you need some kind of a platform -— some computing resources, most likely networked, where you can build your product and eventually expose it to the world.

You need to decide what language programming language you are going to write in, what framework you are going to use, and how those resources will result in an operational system capable of rendering IT services. You are probably swimming in a sea of advice and options regarding your technical choices. At this writing, JavaScript is a leading choice of programming language, in conjunction with various frameworks and NoSQL options e.

Net, and Ruby and Python have significant followings. Linux is arguably the leading platform, but commercial UNIX and Microsoft platforms are still strong. However, in the past few years, some powerful infrastructure concepts have solidified that are independent of particular platforms:. This might seem like a detour — you are in a hurry to start writing code! But industry practice is clear. You check your code into source control from Day One.

You define your server configurations as recipes, manifests, or at least shell scripts, and check those definitions into source control as well. You keep track of what you have downloaded from the Internet and what version of stuff you are using, through package management which uses different tools than source control. So, you need to understand a few things and make a few decisions that you will be living with for a while, and will not be easily changed. The basic physical and organizational structures and facilities e.

For example, a customer-facing online banking service is consumed by end users. An IT infrastructure service is a service consumed by other IT-centric teams and capabilities. For example, a database or a load balancing service is consumed by other IT teams. IT infrastructure is one form of infrastructure. IT infrastructure, like IT itself, is defined by its fundamental dependence on information and computing theory.

This was rightly determined to be a general-case problem that could be the basis for commodity software, and so companies like Oracle were born. There are many books some in the Further Reading section for this chapter on all aspects of IT infrastructure, which is a broad and deep topic. Our discussion of it here has to be high level, as appropriate for a survey course. Compute is the resource that performs the rapid, clock-driven digital logic that transforms data inputs to outputs.

If we have a picture of our friend, and we use a digital filter to adjust the brightness, that is an application of compute power. Each of those numbers needs to be evaluated and the brightness adjusted. There may be millions in a single image. To brighten a picture, we might tell the computer:.

At a more realistic level, the process might be executed as a batch on a workstation, for hundreds or thousands of photos at a time. Computers are often used to automate business processes, but in order to do so, the process needs to be carefully defined, with no ambiguity. Either the customer has bought the item, or they have not. Either they live in Minnesota, or Wisconsin. Deep learning systems based on neural networks, and similar artificial intelligence, are beyond our discussion here -— and in any event, are still based on these binary fundamentals.

Computer processing is not free. Moving data from one point to another — the fundamental transmission of information — requires matter and energy, and is bound up in physical reality and the laws of thermodynamics.

The same applies for changing the state of data, which usually involves moving it somewhere, operating on it, and returning it to its original location. In the real world, even running the simplest calculation has physical and therefore economic cost, and so we must pay for computing. Storage But where did the picture come from? The data comprising the pixels needs to be stored somewhere see Disks in a storage array [ 13 ].

Many technologies have been used for digital storage. Increasingly, the IT professional need not be concerned with the physical infrastructure used for storing data. As we will cover in the next section, storage increasingly is experienced as a virtual resource, accessed through executing programmed logic on cloud platforms.

However, it is important to understand that in general, storage follows a hierarchy. If this is unfamiliar, see Wikipedia or research on your own; you should have a basic grasp of this issue. Network We can change the state of some data, or store it. We also need to move it. This is the basic concern of networking , to transmit data or information from one location to another.

We see evidence of networking every day; you may be familiar with coaxial cables for cable TV, or telephone lines strung from pole to pole in many areas. However, like storage, there is also a hierarchy of networking:. Motherboard and backplane circuits. And like storage and compute, networking as a service increasingly is independent of implementation. The developer uses programmatic tools to define expected information transmission, and again ideally need not be concerned with the specific networking technologies or architectures serving their needs.

There is ferocious turbulence in the IT infrastructure market. Cloud computing, containers, serverless computing, providers coming and going, various arguments over "which platform is better," and so forth. As an entrepreneur, you need to understand what technical trends are important to you. Furthermore, you will need to make some level of commitment to your technical architecture. As a startup, it would seem likely that you would use a commodity cloud provider.

This text is based on this assumption physical IT asset management will be discussed in Sections 3 and 4. Is there any reason why the public cloud would not work for you? For example, if you want to develop on a LAMP stack, you need a cloud provider that will support you in this. While most are very flexible, you will need to consider the specific support levels they are offering; a provider that supports the platform and not just the operating system might be more valuable, but there may be higher costs and other trade-offs. There is a near-infinite amount of material, debate, discussion, books, blogs, lists, and so forth concerning choice of language and platform.

Exploring this area is not the purpose of this book. However, this book has certain assumptions:. Your system will be built, at least in part, with some form of programming language which is human-readable and compiled or interpreted into binary instructions. New functionality moves through the pipeline at significant volumes and velocity and you are concerned with optimizing this overall flow [ 15 ]. The idea that all requirements need to be understood in detail before considering technical platform is, in general, an outmoded concept that made more sense when hardware was more specialized and only available as expensive, organization-owned assets.

With the emergence of cloud providers able to sell computing services, companies no longer need to commit to large capital outlays. Your MVP is an initial statement of requirements from which you should be able to infer at least initial toolset and platform requirements. Here to get you started are the major players as of this writing:. Ruby on Rails is another frequently-encountered platform. If you are building a data or analytics-centric product, R and Python are popular.

The reality is that you cannot know all of the factors necessary to make a perfect decision, and in fact the way you will learn them is by moving forward and testing out various approaches. You can easily stand up environments for comparison using cloud services, or even with lightweight virtualization Vagrant or Docker on your own personal laptop. Do not fall into analysis paralysis. But be critical of everything especially in your first few weeks of development. Ask yourself:.

According to the National Institute for Standards and Technology , cloud is:. Before cloud, people generally bought computers of varying sizes and power ratings to deliver the IT value they sought. With cloud services, the same compute capacity can be rented or leased by the minute or hour, and accessed over the Internet. There is much to learn about cloud computing.

In this section, we will discuss the following aspects:. Virtualization , for the purposes of this section, starts with the idea of a computer within a computer. It has applicability to storage and networking as well but we will skip that for now. In order to understand this, we need to understand a little bit about operating systems and how they relate to the physical computer. Assume a simple, physical computer such as a laptop see Laptop computer , [ 16 ].

Many such programs can also be run as applications within the browser, but the browser still needs to be run as an application. In the simplest form of virtualization, a specialized application known as a hypervisor is loaded like any other application. The purpose of this hypervisor is to emulate the hardware computer in software. The hypervisor mediates the virtual machine VM access to the actual, physical hardware of the laptop; the VM can take input from the USB port, and output to the Bluetooth interface, just like the master OS that launched when the laptop was turned on.

There are two different kinds of hypervisors. The example we just discussed was an example of a Type 2 hypervisor, which runs on top of a host OS. Paravirtualization , e. In a paravirtualized environment, a core OS is able to abstract hardware resources for multiple virtual guest environments without having to virtualize hardware for each guest. However, while hypervisors can support a diverse array of virtual machines with different OSs on a single computing node, guest environments in a paravirtualized system generally share a single OS. See Virtualization types for an overview of all the types.

Virtualization attracted business attention as a means to consolidate computing workloads. For years, companies would purchase servers to run applications of various sizes, and in many cases the computers were badly underutilized. The above figure is a simplification.

Computing and storage infrastructure supporting each application stack in the business were sized to support each workload. For example, a payroll server might run on a different infrastructure configuration than a data warehouse server. Large enterprises needed to support hundreds of different infrastructure configurations, increasing maintenance and support costs.

The adoption of virtualization allowed businesses to compress multiple application workloads onto a smaller number of physical servers see Efficiency through virtualization. In most virtualized architectures, the physical servers supporting workloads share a consistent configuration, which made it easy to add and remove resources from the environment.

The VMs may still vary greatly in configuration, but the fact of virtualization makes managing that easier — the VMs can be easily copied and moved, and increasingly can be defined as a form of code see next section. Virtualization thus introduced a new design pattern into the enterprise where computing and storage infrastructure became commoditized building blocks supporting an ever-increasing array of services.

But what about where the application is large and virtualization is mostly overhead? Virtualization still may make sense in terms of management consistency and ease of system recovery. Companies have always sought alternatives to owning their own computers. There is a long tradition of managed services, where applications are built out by a customer and then their management is outsourced to a third party. Such relationships left much to be desired in terms of responsiveness to change. As computers became cheaper, companies increasingly acquired their own data centers, investing large amounts of capital in high-technology spaces with extensive power and cooling infrastructure.

The idea of running IT completely as a utility service goes back at least to and the publication of The Challenge of the Computer Utility , by Douglas Parkhill see Initial statement of cloud computing. While the conceptual idea of cloud and utility computing was foreseeable 50 years ago, it took many years of hard-won IT evolution to support the vision.

Reliable hardware of exponentially increasing performance, robust open-source software, Internet backbones of massive speed and capacity, and many other factors converged towards this end. However, people store data — often private — on computers. This is called multi-tenancy. In multi-tenancy, multiple customers share physical resources that provide the illusion of being dedicated. In order to run compute as a utility, multi-tenancy was essential.

This is different from electricity but similar to the phone system. As noted elsewhere, one watt of electric power is like any other and there is less concern for leakage or unexpected interactions. Virtualization is necessary, but not sufficient for cloud. True cloud services are highly automated, and most cloud analysts will insist that if VMs cannot be created and configured in a completely automated fashion, the service is not true cloud.

Software as a Service SaaS. The applications are accessible from various client devices through either a thin client interface, such as a web browser e. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user-specific application configuration settings.

Platform as a Service PaaS. The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages, libraries, services, and tools supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control over the deployed applications and possibly configuration settings for the application-hosting environment.

Infrastructure as a Service IaaS. The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications.

The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, and deployed applications; and possibly limited control of select networking components e. There are cloud services beyond those listed above e.

Various platform services have become extensive on providers such as Amazon, which offers load balancing, development pipelines, various kinds of storage, and much more. The combination of cloud computing with paravirtualization, including technologies such as Docker. As cloud infrastructures have scaled, there has been an increasing need to configure many servers identically. Auto-scaling adding more servers in response to increasing load has become a widely used strategy as well. Both call for increased automation in the provisioning of IT infrastructure.

It is simply not possible for a human being to be hands on at all times in configuring and enabling such infrastructures, so automation is called for. In years past, infrastructure administrators relied on the ad hoc issuance of commands either at an operations console or via a GUI-based application.

Shell scripts might be used for various repetitive processes, but administrators by tradition and culture were empowered to issue arbitrary commands to alter the state of the running system directly. The speaker is Wes, the infrastructure manager, who is discussing a troubleshooting scenario:. But eventually, we got to a point where we were just out of ideas, and we were starting to make things worse. So, we put Brent on the problem. Ten minutes later, the problem is fixed.

Everyone is happy and relieved that the system came back up. I just did it. It is not a procedure or operation that can be archived and distributed across multiple servers. So, shell scripts or more advanced forms of automation are written and increasingly, all actual server configuration is based on such pre-developed specification.

In fact, because virtualization is becoming so powerful, servers increasingly are destroyed and rebuilt at the first sign of any trouble. This again is a relatively new practice. Previously, because of the expense and complexity of bare-metal servers, and the cost of having them offline, great pains were taken to fix troubled servers.

Systems administrators would spend hours or days troubleshooting obscure configuration problems, such as residual settings left by removed software. See the "Cattle not pets? Note: the below part is illustrative only, and is not intended as a lab. The associated lab for this book goes into depth on these topics. In presenting infrastructure as code at its simplest, we will start with the concept of a shell script. Consider the following set of commands:.

Configuration, you ask? Something this trivial? Yes, directory and file layouts count as configuration and in some cases are critical. Now, what if we take that same set of commands, and put them in a text file thus:. We might name that file iac. More on this to come. This may be familiar material to some of you, including the fact that beyond creating directories and files we can use shell scripts to create and destroy virtual servers, install and remove software, set up and delete users, check on the status of running processes, and much more.

Sophisticated infrastructure as code techniques are an essential part of modern site reliability engineering practices such as those used by Google. Auto-scaling, self-healing systems, and fast deployments of new features all require that infrastructure be represented as code for maximum speed and reliability of creation. For further information and practical examples, see Infrastructure as Code by Kief Morris [ ].

It documents our intentions for how this configuration should look. We can reliably run it on thousands of machines, and it will always give us two directories and six files. In terms of the previous section, we might choose to run it on every new server we create. We want to establish it as a known resource in our technical ecosystem.

This is where version control and the broader concept of configuration management come in. In earlier times, servers that is, computers managed on a distributed network were usually configured without virtualization. At best, the systems administrators, or server engineers, might have written guidelines, or perhaps some shell scripts, that would be run on the server to configure it in a semi-consistent way. The problem with this is that modern computing systems are so complex that deleting software can be difficult. For example, if the un-install process fails in some way, the server can be left in a compromised state.

Similarly, one-time configuration adjustments made to one server means that it may be inconsistent with similar devices, and this can cause problems. For example, if the first systems administrator is on vacation, their substitute may expect the server to be configured in a certain way and make adjustments that have unexpected effects.

Or the first systems administrator themselves may forget, exactly, what it is they did. Through such practices, servers would start to develop personalities, because their configurations were inconsistent. As people started to work more and more with virtualization, they realized it was easier to rebuild virtual servers from scratch, rather than trying to fix them. Automated configuration management tools helped by promoting a consistent process for rebuilding. That is, when a pet is sick, one takes it to the vet, but a sick cow might simply be put to death. Configuration management is, and has always been, a critically important practice in digital systems.

How it is performed has evolved over time. At this stage in our journey, we are a one or two people startup, working with digital artifacts such as our iac. One or two people can achieve an impressive amount with modern digital platforms. But, the work is complex. Tracking and controlling your work products as they evolve through change after change is important from day one of your efforts.

In terms of infrastructure, configuration management requires three capabilities:. Taking the backup should not require taking the system down. Why is this? Version control is critical for any kind of system with complex, changing content, especially when many people are working on that content.

With version control, we can understand what changed and when — which is essential to coping with complexity. While version control was always deemed important for software artifacts, it has only recently become the preferred paradigm for managing infrastructure state as well. Because of this, version control is possibly the first IT management system you should acquire and implement perhaps as a cloud service, such as Github. Version control in recent years increasingly distinguishes between source control and package management see Types of version control and Configuration management and its components below : the management of binary files, as distinct from human-understandable symbolic files.

Version control works like an advanced file system with a memory. Actual file systems that do this are called versioning file systems. It can remember all the changes you make to its contents, tell you the differences between any two versions, and also bring back the version you had at any point in time.

Version control is important — but how important? Survey research presented in the annual State of DevOps report indicates that version control is one of the most critical practices associated with high performing IT organizations [ 38 ]. Nicole Forsgren [ 94 ] summarizes the practice of version control as:.

Digital systems start with text files, e. Text editors create source code, scripts, and configuration files. These will be transformed in defined ways e. In the previous section, we described a simple script that altered the state of a computer system. We care very much about when such a text file changes. One wrong character can completely alter the behavior of a large, complex system. Therefore, our configuration management approach must track to that level of detail. Source control is at its most powerful when dealing with textual data. It is less useful in dealing with binary data, such as image files.

Text files can be analyzed for their differences in an easy to understand way see Source control. I might be able to tell that they are two different files easily, but they would look very similar, and the difference in the binary data might be difficult to understand.

Here is a detailed demonstration, using the command line in Ubuntu Linux. First, we create a directory similar to the iac. If you have access to a computer, try it! In comparison, the following are two 10x10 gray-scale bitmap images being edited in the Gimp image editor. They are about as simple as you can get. Notice in Two bitmaps that they are slightly different. But if we open them in a binary editor it is very difficult to understand how they differ compare First file binary data with Second file binary data.

Even if we analyzed the differences, we would need to know much about the. We can still track both versions of these files, of course, with the proper version control. But again, binary data is not ideal for source control tools like git. In Git, a commit is used to record changes to a repository … Every Git commit represents a single, atomic changeset with respect to the previous state.

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Regardless of the number of directories, files, lines, or bytes that change with a commit … either all changes apply, or none do. It both represents the state of the computing system as well as providing evidence of the human activity affecting it. In some environments, the branch is automatically created with the assignment of a requirement or story -— again, more on this to come in chapter 3.

In other environments, the very concept of branching is avoided. In some organizations, it was once common for compiled binaries to be stored in the same repositories as source code see Common version control. However, this is no longer considered a best practice. Source and package management are now viewed as two separate things see Source versus package repos. Source repositories should be reserved for text-based artifacts whose differences can be made visible in a human-understandable way.

Package repositories in contrast are for binary artifacts that can be deployed. Package repositories also can serve as a proxy to the external world of downloadable software. For example, developers may be told to download the approved Ruby on Rails version from the local package repository, rather than going to get the latest version, which may not be suitable for the environment.

Package repositories furthermore are used to enable collaboration between teams working on large systems. Teams can check in their built components into the package repository for other teams to download. This is more efficient than everyone always building all parts of the application from the source repository. The boundary between source and package is not hard and fast, however. One sometimes sees binary files in source repositories, such as images used in an application. Version control is an important part of the overall concept of configuration management.

But configuration management also covers the matter of how artifacts under version control are combined with other IT resources such as VMs to deliver services. Configuration management and its components elaborates on Types of version control to depict the relationships.

Resources in version control in general are not yet active in any value-adding sense. In order for them to deliver experiences, they must be combined with computing resources: servers physical or virtual , storage, nettworking, and the rest, whether owned by the organization or leased as cloud services. The process of doing so is called deployment. Version control manages the state of the artifacts; meanwhile, deployment management as another configuration management practice manages the combination of those artifacts with the needed resources for value delivery.

Before we turned to source control, we looked at a simple script that changed the configuration of a computer. It did so in an imperative fashion. Imperative and declarative are two important terms from computer science. Give money to the cashier and bring the container back home. In an imperative approach, we tell the computer specifically how we want to accomplish a task, e. Many traditional programming languages take an imperative approach. A script such as our iac. More practically, declarative approaches are used to ensure that the proper versions of software are always present on a system and that configurations such as Internet ports and security settings do not vary from the intended specification.

This is a complex topic, and there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach. But policy-based approaches seem to have the upper hand for now. Version control, in particular, source control, is where we start to see the emergence of an architecture of IT management. It is in the source control system that we first start to see metadata emerge as an independent concern. Metadata is a tricky term, that tends to generate confusion.


PID Global

In traditional data management, metadata is the description of the data structures, especially from a business point of view. In document management, the document metadata is the record of who created the document and when, when it was last updated, and so forth. Failure to properly sanitize document metadata has led to various privacy and data security-related issues. Metadata, on the other hand, is all the information about the call: from whom to who, when, how long, and so forth. In computer systems, metadata can be difficult to isolate. Because of this, this book favors a principle that metadata is by definition non-runtime.

It is documentation, usually represented as structured or semi-structured data, but not usually a primary processing input or output. It is not executable. So what about our infrastructure as code example? The artifact — the configuration file, the script — is NOT metadata, because it is executable.

But the source repository commit IS metadata. It has no meaning for the script. The dependency is one-way — without the artifact, the commit ID is meaningless, but the artifact is completely ignorant of the commit. The commit may become an essential data point for human beings trying to make sense of the state of a resource defined by that artifact. However, as Loeliger notes in Version control with Git , the version control system:. As the developer, you might move a function from here to there and expect this to be handled as one unitary move.

But you could, alternatively, commit the removal and then later commit the addition. It has nothing to do with the semantics of what is in the files" [ ]. In this microcosm, we see the origins of IT management. It is not always easy to apply this approach in practice. There can be edge cases. Ultimately, the concept of metadata provides a basis for distinguishing the management of IT from the actual application of IT.

Books and articles are written every week about some aspect of IT and digital infrastructure. We have only scratched the surface in our discussions of computing, network, and storage, and how they have become utility services in the guise of cloud.

Github Open Source Guide

Software as a Service, Platform as a Service, Infrastructure as a Service -— each represents a different approach. For the most part, we will focus on infrastructure as a service in the remainder of this book, on the assumption that your digital product is unique enough to need the broad freedom this provides. Digital infrastructure is a rich and complex topic, and a person can spend their career specializing in it. For this class, we always want to keep the key themes of Chapter 1 in mind: why do we want it?

How does it provide for our needs, contribute to our enjoyment? There are numerous sources available to you to learn Linux, Windows, scripting, policy-based configuration management of infrastructure, and source control. Competency with source control is essential to your career, and you should devote some serious time to it. Since source control is the most important foundational technology for professional IT -— whether in a garage start-up or in the largest organizations —— you need to have a deep familiarity with it. We will discuss further infrastructure issues in Chapter 6 , including designing systems for failure and availability.

Consider your product idea from the previous chapter. Does it have any particular infrastructure needs you can identify, having read this chapter? Your personal laptop or smartphone is infrastructure. What issues have you had with it? Have you had to change its configuration? Would you prefer to build your product on an IaaS or PaaS platform see the cloud models? Is there an SaaS product that might be of service? If so, what is your value-adding idea? Compare the costs of cloud to owning your own server. Assume you buy a server inexpensively on Ebay and put it in your garage. What other factors might you consider before doing this?

Run a Linux tutorial. Use Git to control your configurations. Thomas A. Limoncelli, Strata R. Chalup, Christina J. Mark Burgess, Analytical Network and System Administration: Managing Human-Computer Systems exceptionally deep and rigorous book by a trained physicist on using mathematical methods to understand computing infrastructure problems. Are your servers pets or cattle? A reality check on everyone moving everything to the Cloud.

NIST definition of Cloud computing. On DVCS, continuous integration, and feature branches. So, this chapter presents Agile and related concepts like iterative development without examining the underlying principles. Many students increasingly come in with some exposure to cloud and Agile methods at least, and Chapters 2 and 3 will seem comfortable and familiar. In Chapter 4 and on we challenge them with why Agile works. Now that we have some idea of IT value and how we might turn it into a product , and have decided on some infrastructure, we can start building.

In fact, it is difficult to think of any aspect of modern life untouched by applications. This overall trend is sometimes called digital transformation [ ]. Applications are built from software, the development of which is a core concern for any IT-centric product strategy. Software development is a well established career, and a fast-moving field with new technologies, frameworks, and schools of thought emerging weekly, it seems. This chapter will cover applications and the software lifecycle, from requirements through construction, testing, building, and deployment of modern production environments.

It also discusses earlier approaches to software development, the rise of the Agile movement, and its current manifestation in the practice of DevOps. Without applications, computers would be merely a curiosity. As the value of computers became obvious, investment was made in making programming easier through more powerful languages.

The history of software is well documented. Extensive middleware was developed to enable ease of programming, communication across networks, and standardize common functions. Today, we have extensive frameworks like Apache Struts , Spring , and Ruby on Rails , along with interpreted languages that take much of the friction out of building and testing code. In the first decades of computing, any significant application of computing power to a new problem typically required its own infrastructure , often designed specifically for the problem.

And major new applications required new compute capacity. Take for example when a large organization in decided to replace its mainframe Human Resources system due to Y2K concerns. Such a system might need to support several thousand users around the world. At that time, PeopleSoft was a frequent choice of software. Implementing such a system was often led by consulting firms such as Deloitte or Andersen Consulting where one of the authors worked. A typical PeopleSoft package implementation would include:. PeopleSoft software, including the PeopleTools framework and various modules written in the framework e.

Various ancillary software and hardware: management utilities and scripts, backup, networking, etc. Customization of the PeopleSoft HR module and reports by hired consultants, to meet the requirements of the acquiring organization. The software and hardware needed to be specified in keeping with requirements, and acquiring it took lengthy negotiations and logistics and installation processes.

Such a project from inception to production might take 9 months on the short side to 18 or more months. Hardware was dedicated and rarely re-used. The HP servers compatible with PeopleSoft might have few other applications if they became surplus. Upgrading the software might require also upgrading the hardware.

In essence, this sort of effort had a strong component of systems engineering , as designing and optimizing the hardware component was a significant portion of the work. Today, matters are quite different, and yet echoes of the older model persist. As mentioned, ANY compute workloads are going to incur economic cost.

However, capacity is being used more efficiently and can be provisioned on-demand. Currently, it is a significant application indeed that merits its own systems engineering. The fungibility and agility of these mechanisms increase the velocity of creation and evolution of application software. For small and medium sized applications, the overwhelming trend is to virtualize and run on commodity hardware and operating systems.

The general-purpose capabilities of virtualized public and private cloud today are robust. Assuming the organization has the financial capability to purchase computing capacity in anticipation of use, it can be instantly available when the need surfaces. Systems engineering at the hardware level is more and more independent of the application lifecycle; the trend is towards providing compute as a service, carefully specified in terms of performance, but NOT particular hardware. Hardware physically dedicated to a single application is rarer, and even the largest engineered systems are more standardized so that they may one day benefit from cloud approaches.

Application architectures have also become much more powerful. Interfaces interaction points for applications to exchange information with each other, generally in an automated way are increasingly standardized. Applications are designed to scale dynamically with the workload and are more stable and reliable than in years past. In the next section, we will discuss how the practices of application development have evolved to their current state.

This is not a book on software development per se , nor on Agile development. There are hundreds of books available on those topics. But, no assumption is made that the reader has any familiarity with these topics, so some basic history is called for. If you have taken an introductory course in software engineering, this will likely be a review. For example, when a new analyst would join the systems integrator Andersen Consulting now Accenture in , they would be schooled in something called the Business Integration Method BIM.

What is waterfall development? It is a controversial question. Walker Royce, the original theorist who coined the term named it in order to critique it [ ]. Military contracting and management consultancy practices, however, embraced it, as it provided an illusion of certainty. The fact that computer systems until recently included a substantial component of hardware systems engineering may also have contributed. Waterfall development as a term has become associated with a number of practices.

The original illustration was similar to Waterfall lifecycle [ 19 ] :. First, requirements need to be extensively captured and analyzed before the work of development can commence. The analysis phase was used to develop a more structured understanding of the requirements, e. In the design phase, the actual technical platforms would be chosen; major subsystems determined with their connection points, initial capacity analysis volumetrics translated into system sizing, and so forth.

Furthermore, there was a separation of duties between developers and testers. Developers would write code and testers would try to break it, filing bug reports that the developers would then need to respond to. Another model sometimes encountered at this time was the V-model see V-model [ 20 ]. This was intended to better represent the various levels of abstraction operating in the systems delivery activity.

Requirements operate at various levels, from high-level business intent through detailed specifications. The failures of these approaches at scale are by now well known. Large distributed teams would wrestle with thousands of requirements. Documentation became an end in itself and did not meet its objectives of ensuring continuity if staff turned over. The development team would design and build extensive product implementations without checking the results with customers.

They would also defer testing that various component parts would effectively interoperate until the very end of the project, when the time came to assemble the whole system. Failure after failure of this approach is apparent in the historical record [ ].

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  4. Many of these successful efforts used prototypes and other means of building understanding and proving out approaches. If you want to keep up with the significant changes in this important language, you need the second edition of Programming Clojure. Stu and Aaron describe the modifications to the numerics system in Clojure 1. Programming Clojure, 2nd Edition is a significant update to the classic book on the Clojure language. You'll get thorough coverage of all the new features of Clojure 1.

    Many code examples have been rewritten or replaced, and every page has been reevaluated in the light of Clojure 1. As Aaron and Stu show you how to build an application from scratch, you'll get a rich view into a complete Clojure workflow. And you'll get an invaluable education in thinking in Clojure as you work out solutions to the various parts of a problem. Clojure is becoming the language of choice for many who are moving to functional programming or dealing with the challenges of concurrency. Clojure offers: The simplicity of an elegantly designed language The power of Lisp The virtues of concurrency and functional style The reach of the JVM The speed of hand-written Java code It's the combination of these features that makes Clojure sparkle.

    Programming Clojure, 2nd Edition shows you how to think in Clojure, and to take advantage of these combined strengths to build powerful programs quickly. The key, as the authors show, is to integrate regularly and often using continuous integration CI practices and techniques. The authors first examine the concept of CI and its practices from the ground up and then move on to explore other effective processes performed by CI systems, such as database integration, testing, inspection, deployment, and feedback.


    Through more than forty CI-related practices using application examples in different languages, readers learn that CI leads to more rapid software development, produces deployable software at every step in the development lifecycle, and reduces the time between defect introduction and detection, saving time and lowering costs. With successful implementation of CI, developers reduce risks and repetitive manual processes, and teams receive better project visibility.

    Streamline software development with Jenkins, the popular Java-based open source tool that has revolutionized the way teams think about Continuous Integration CI. This complete guide shows you how to automate your build, integration, release, and deployment processes with Jenkins—and demonstrates how CI can save you time, money, and many headaches.

    Ideal for developers, software architects, and project managers, Jenkins: The Definitive Guide is both a CI tutorial and a comprehensive Jenkins reference. Through its wealth of best practices and real-world tips, you'll discover how easy it is to set up a CI service with Jenkins. Companies running VMware have already achieved enormous gains through virtualization. The next wave of benefits will come when they reduce the time and effort required to run and manage VMware platforms. Until now, there has been little documentation for the APIs. Drawing on his extensive expertise working with VMware strategic partners and enterprise customers, he places the VI SDK in practical context, presenting realistic samples and proven best practices for building robust, effective solutions.

    Jin demonstrates how to manage every facet of a VMware environment, including inventory, host systems, virtual machines VMs , snapshots, VMotion, clusters, resource pools, networking, storage, data stores, events, alarms, users, security, licenses, and scheduled tasks. Coverage includes. This book is an indispensable resource for all VMware developers and administrators who want to get more done in less time; for hardware vendors who want to integrate their products with VMware; for ISV developers building new VMware applications; and for every professional and student seeking a deeper mastery of virtualization.

    This book is a reality-based guide for modern projects. You'll learn how to recognize your project's potholes and ruts, and determine the best way to fix problems - without causing more problems. Your project can't fail. That's a lot of pressure on you, and yet you don't want to buy into any one specific process, methodology, or lifecycle. Manage It! It will help you find what works best for you and not for some mythological project that doesn't even exist.

    Even the best developers have seen well-intentioned software projects fail -- often because the customer kept changing requirements, and end users didn't know how to use the software you developed. Instead of surrendering to these common problems, let Head First Software Development guide you through the best practices of software development.

    Before you know it, those failed projects will be a thing of the past. With its unique visually rich format, this book pulls together the hard lessons learned by expert software developers over the years. You'll gain essential information about each step of the software development lifecycle -- requirements, design, coding, testing, implementing, and maintenance -- and understand why and how different development processes work. This book is for you if you are:. Making Java Groovy is a practical handbook for developers who want to blend Groovy into their day-to-day work with Java.

    It starts by introducing the key differences between Java and Groovy—and how you can use them to your advantage. Then, it guides you step-by-step through realistic development challenges, from web applications to web services to desktop applications, and shows how Groovy makes them easier to put into production. You don't need the full force of Java when you're writing a build script, a simple system utility, or a lightweight web app—but that's where Groovy shines brightest.

    This elegant JVM-based dynamic language extends and simplifies Java so you can concentrate on the task at hand instead of managing minute details and unnecessary complexity. Making Java Groov is a practical guide for developers who want to benefit from Groovy in their work with Java. It starts by introducing the key differences between Java and Groovy and how to use them to your advantage. Then, you'll focus on the situations you face every day, like consuming and creating RESTful web services, working with databases, and using the Spring framework.

    You'll also explore the great Groovy tools for build processes, testing, and deployment and learn how to write Groovy-based domain-specific languages that simplify Java development. Ken Kousen is an independent consultant and trainer specializing in Spring, Hibernate, Groovy, and Grails. Professional Git takes a professional approach to learning this massively popular software development tool, and provides an up-to-date guide for new users.

    More than just a development manual, this book helps you get into the Git mindset—extensive discussion of corollaries to traditional systems as well as considerations unique to Git help you draw upon existing skills while looking out—and planning for—the differences. Connected labs and exercises are interspersed at key points to reinforce important concepts and deepen your understanding, and a focus on the practical goes beyond technical tutorials to help you integrate the Git model into your real-world workflow.

    Git greatly simplifies the software development cycle, enabling users to create, use, and switch between versions as easily as you switch between files. This book shows you how to harness that power and flexibility to streamline your development cycle. Understand the basic Git model and overall workflow Learn the Git versions of common source management concepts and commands Track changes, work with branches, and take advantage of Git's full functionality Avoid trip-ups and missteps common to new users Git works with the most popular software development tools and is used by almost all of the major technology companies.

    More than 40 percent of software developers use it as their primary source control tool, and that number continues to grow; the ability to work effectively with Git is rapidly approaching must-have status, and Professional Git is the comprehensive guide you need to get up to speed quickly.

    It provides a powerful framework for developing server-side applications, allowing you to cleanly separate visual presentation and application logic. JSF 2. To help you quickly tap into the power of JSF 2. The book includes. Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing.

    Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions:. This includes basic project setup, implementation, testing, tuning and scaling for large volumes. Java developers with Spring experience.

    Java Architects designing batch solutions More specifically, this book is intended for those who have a solid foundation in the core Java platform. Batch processing covers a wide spectrum of topics, not all of which are covered in detail in this book. Given that Spring Batch is a framework built upon the open-source IoC container Spring, which will not be covered in this book, it is expected that the reader will be familiar with its concepts and conventions.

    With that in mind, the reader is not expected to have any prior exposure to the Spring Batch framework. All concepts related to it will be explained in detail, with working examples. Everything you need to know to create professional web sites is right here. Learning Web Design starts from the beginning -- defining how the Web and web pages work -- and builds from there. By the end of the book, you'll have the skills to create multi-column CSS layouts with optimized graphic files, and you'll know how to get your pages up on the Web.

    This thoroughly revised edition teaches you how to build web sites according to modern design practices and professional standards. Learning Web Design explains:. Java Programming Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is your complete beginner's guide to the Java programming language, with easy-to-follow lessons and supplemental exercises that help you get up and running quickly.

    Step-by-step instruction walks you through the basics of object-oriented programming, syntax, interfaces, and more, before building upon your skills to develop games, web apps, networks, and automations. Even if you have no programming experience at all, the more than six hours of Java programming screencasts will demonstrate major concepts and procedures in a way that facilitates learning and promotes a better understanding of the development process.

    Spring Enterprise Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach by Gary Mak

    This is your quick and painless guide to mastering Java, whether you're starting from scratch or just looking to expand your skill set. If you want to start programming quickly, Java Programming Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is your ideal solution. Proving once and for all that standards-compliant design does not equal dull design, this inspiring tome uses examples from the landmark CSS Zen Garden site as the foundation for discussions on how to create beautiful, progressive CSS-based Web sites.

    By the time you've finished perusing the volume, you'll have a new understanding of the graphically rich, fully accessible sites that CSS design facilitates. In sections on design, layout, imagery, typography, effects, and themes, Dave and Molly take you through every phase of the design process--from striking a sensible balance between text and graphics to creating eye-popping special effects no scripting required.

    This isn't theory, but the fruits of Ford's real-world experience as an Application Architect at the global IT consultancy ThoughtWorks. Whether you're a beginner or a pro with years of experience, you'll improve your work and your career with the simple and straightforward principles in The Productive Programmer. Whether it's in Java,. NET, or Ruby on Rails, getting your application ready to ship is only half the battle. Did you design your system to survivef a sudden rush of visitors from Digg or Slashdot?

    Or an influx of real world customers from different countries? Are you ready for a world filled with flakey networks , tangled databases , and impatient users? If you're a developer and don't want to be on call for 3AM for the rest of your life, this book will help. In Release It! Nygard shows you how to design and architect your application for the harsh realities it will face. You'll learn how to design your application for maximum uptime, performance, and return on investment. Are you still designing web sites like it's ?

    If so, you're in for a surprise. Since the last edition of this book appeared five years ago, there has been a major climate change with regard to web standards. Designers are no longer using X HTML as a design tool, but as a means of defining the meaning and structure of content. Cascading Style Sheets are no longer just something interesting to tinker with, but rather a reliable method for handling all matters of presentation, from fonts and colors to the layout of the entire page. In fact, following the standards is now a mandate of professional web design. Our popular reference, Web Design in a Nutshell , is one of the first books to capture this new web landscape with an edition that's been completely rewritten and expanded to reflect the state of the art.

    In addition to being an authoritative reference for X HTML and Cascading Style Sheets, this book also provides an overview of the unique requirements of designing for the Web and gets to the nitty-gritty of JavaScript and DOM Scripting, web graphics optimization, and multimedia production. It is an indispensable tool for web designers and developers of all levels. Organized so that readers can find answers quickly, Web Design in a Nutshell , Third Edition helps experienced designers come up to speed quickly on standards-based web design, and serves as a quick reference for those already familiar with the new standards and technology.

    There are many books for web designers, but none that address such a wide variety of topics. Find out why nearly half a million buyers have made this the most popular web design book available. Patterns are like the lower-level steps found inside recipes; they are the techniques you must master to be considered a master chef or master presenter. You can use the patterns in this book to construct your own recipes for different contexts, such as business meetings, technical demonstrations, scientific expositions, and keynotes, just to name a few.

    Although there are no such things as antirecipes , this book shows you lots of antipatterns —things you should avoid doing in presentations. Modern presentation tools often encourage ineffective presentation techniques, but this book shows you how to avoid them. Each pattern is introduced with a memorable name, a definition, and a brief explanation of motivation. Readers learn where the pattern applies, the consequences of applying it, and how to apply it.

    These problems are easy to avoid—once you know how. Whether you use this book as a handy reference or read it from start to finish, it will be a revelation: an entirely new language for systematically planning, creating, and delivering more powerful presentations. Web frameworks are playing a major role in the creation of today's most compelling web applications, because they automate many of the tedious tasks, allowing developers to instead focus on providing users with creative and powerful features. Java developers have been particularly fortunate in this area, having been able to take advantage of Grails, an open source framework that supercharges productivity when building Java—driven web sites.

    Grails is based on Groovy, which is a very popular and growing dynamic scripting language for Java developers and was inspired by Python, Ruby, and Smalltalk. Beginning Groovy and Grails is the first introductory book on the Groovy language and its primary web framework, Grails. This book gets you started with Groovy and Grails and culminates in the example and possible application of some real—world projects. You follow along with the development of each project, implementing and running each application while learning new features along the way.

    Java and web developers looking to learn and embrace the power and flexibility offered by the Grails framework and Groovy scripting language. You have too many projects, and firefighting and multitasking are keeping you from finishing any of them. You need to manage your project portfolio. This fully updated and expanded bestseller arms you with agile and lean ways to collect all your work and decide which projects you should do first, second, and never. See how to tie your work to your organization's mission and show your managers, your board, and your staff what you can accomplish and when.

    Picture the work you have, and make those difficult decisions, ensuring that all your strength is focused where it needs to be. All your projects and programs make up your portfolio. But how much time do you actually spend on your projects, and how much time do you spend on emergency fire drills or waste through multitasking? This book gives you insightful ways to rank all the projects you're working on and figure out the right staffing and schedule so projects get finished faster.

    The trick is adopting lean and agile approaches to projects, whether they're software projects, projects that include hardware, or projects that depend on chunks of functionality from other suppliers. Find out how to define the mission of your team, group, or department, with none of the buzzwords that normally accompany a mission statement.

    Armed with the work and the mission, you'll manage your portfolio better and make those decisions that define the true leaders in the organization. With this expanded second edition, discover how to scale project portfolio management from one team to the entire enterprise, and integrate Cost of Delay when ranking projects.

    Additional Kanban views provide even more ways to visualize your portfolio. A developer-focused guide to writing applications using Spring Boot. You'll learn how to bypass the tedious configuration steps so that you can concentrate on your application's behavior. Spring Boot in Action is a developer-focused guide to writing applications using Spring Boot. In it, you'll learn how to bypass configuration steps so you can focus on your application's behavior.

    Spring expert Craig Walls uses interesting and practical examples to teach you both how to use the default settings effectively and how to override and customize Spring Boot for your unique environment. Along the way, you'll pick up insights from Craig's years of Spring development experience. Great management is difficult to see as it occurs. It's possible to see the results of great management, but it's not easy to see how managers achieve those results. Great management happens in one-on-one meetings and with other managersall in private. It's hard to learn management by example when you can't see it.

    You can learn to be a better managereven a great managerwith this guide. You'll follow along as Sam, a manager just brought on board, learns the ropes and deals with his new team over the course of his first eight weeks on the job. From scheduling and managing resources to helping team members grow and prosper, you'll be there as Sam makes it happen. You'll find powerful tips covering:. Full of tips and practical advice on the most important aspects of management, this is one of those books that can make a lasting and immediate impact on your career.

    Gentle Manners - Vampire: The Masquerade - L.A. By Night - Season 2, Episode 3

    Java Message Service , Second Edition, is a thorough introduction to the standard API that supports "messaging" -- the software-to-software exchange of crucial data among network computers. You'll learn how JMS can help you solve many architectural challenges, such as integrating dissimilar systems and applications, increasing scalability, eliminating system bottlenecks, supporting concurrent processing, and promoting flexibility and agility. Updated for JMS 1. With Java Message Service , you will:. Messaging is a powerful paradigm that makes it easier to uncouple different parts of an enterprise application.

    Java Message Service , Second Edition, will quickly teach you how to use the key technology that lies behind it. But rest assured, this title is different. The way we develop Java applications is about to change, and this title explores the new way of Java application architecture. Over the past several years, module frameworks have been gaining traction on the Java platform, and upcoming versions of Java will include a module system that allows you to leverage the power of modularity to build more resilient and flexible software systems.

    Before it walks you through eighteen patterns that will help you architect modular software, it lays a solid foundation that shows you why modularity is a critical weapon in your arsenal of design tools. By designing modular applications today, you are positioning yourself for the platform and architecture of tomorrow. Grails is a full stack framework which aims to greatly simplify the task of building serious web applications for the JVM. Grails complements these with additional features that take advantage of the coding—by—convention paradigm such as dynamic tag libraries, Grails object relational mapping, Groovy Server Pages, and scaffolding.

    Graeme Rocher , Grails lead and founder, and Jeff Brown bring you completely up—to—date with their authoritative and fully comprehensive guide to the Grails 2 framework. This book is for everyone who is looking for a more agile approach to web development with a dynamic scripting language such as Groovy. This includes a large number of Java developers who have been enticed by the productivity gains seen with frameworks such as Ruby on Rails, JRuby on Rails, etc. The Web and its environment is a perfect fit for easily adaptable and concise languages such as Groovy and Ruby, and there is huge interest from the developer community in general to embrace these languages.

    You can choose several data access frameworks when building Java enterprise applications that work with relational databases. But what about big data? This hands-on introduction shows you how Spring Data makes it relatively easy to build applications across a wide range of new data access technologies such as NoSQL and Hadoop. More than ever, learning to program concurrency is critical to creating faster, responsive applications.

    Speedy and affordable multicore hardware is driving the demand for high-performing applications, and you can leverage the Java platform to bring these applications to life. Concurrency on the Java platform has evolved, from the synchronization model of JDK to software transactional memory STM and actor-based concurrency. This book is the first to show you all these concurrency styles so you can compare and choose what works best for your applications. You'll learn the benefits of each of these models, when and how to use them, and what their limitations are.

    Through hands-on exercises, you'll learn how to avoid shared mutable state and how to write good, elegant, explicit synchronization-free programs so you can create easy and safe concurrent applications. The techniques you learn in this book will take you from dreading concurrency to mastering and enjoying it. If you are a Java programmer, you'd need JDK 1. In addition, if you program in Scala, Clojure, Groovy or JRuby you'd need the latest version of your preferred language.

    Groovy programmers will also need GPars. Inside this authoritative resource, the co-spec lead for JSF at Sun Microsystems shows you how to create dynamic, cross-browser Web applications that deliver a world-class user experience while preserving a high level of code quality and maintainability. JavaServer Faces 2. The book explains all JSF features, including the request processing lifecycle, managed beans, page navigation, component development, Ajax, validation, internationalization, and security. Ready-to-use code at www.

    Dive in and create your first example application with OpenShift Modify the example with your own code and hot-deploy the changes Add components such as a database, task scheduling, and monitoring Use external libraries and dependencies in your application Delve into networking, persistent storage, and backup options Explore ways to adapt your team processes to use OpenShift Learn OpenShift terms, technologies, and commands Get a list of resources to learn more about OpenShift and PaaS.

    Groovy Fundamentals [Online Code] by. This video workshop takes you into the heart of this JVM language and shows you how Groovy can help increase your productivity through dynamic language features similar to those of Python, Ruby, and Smalltalk. Presenter and Java consultant Ken Kousen demonstrates how writing anything from a simple build script to a full scale application is much easier with Groovy than with Java.

    Groovy in Action: Covers Groovy 2. This book will help readers answer the following questions: How do you create a web service API, what are the common API styles, and when should a particular style be used? How can clients and web services communicate, and what are the foundations for creating complex conversations in which multiple parties exchange data over extended periods of time?

    What are the options for implementing web service logic, and when should a particular approach be used? How can clients become less coupled to the underlying systems used by a service? How can generic functions like authentication, validation, caching, and logging be supported on the client or service? What are the common ways to version a service? How can web services be designed to support the continuing evolution of business logic without forcing clients to constantly upgrade? Design Patterns in Ruby by Russ Olsen. Praise for Design Patterns in Ruby " Design Patterns in Ruby documents smart ways to resolve many problems that Ruby developers commonly encounter.

    Gradle in Action by Benjamin Muschko. Summary Gradle in Action is a comprehensive guide to end-to-end project automation with Gradle. About the Technology Gradle is a general-purpose build automation tool. About the Book Gradle in Action is a comprehensive guide to end-to-end project automation with Gradle. The book assumes a basic background in Java, but no knowledge of Groovy. Whats Inside A comprehensive guide to Gradle Practical, real-world examples Transitioning from Ant and Maven In-depth plugin development Continuous delivery with Gradle About the Author Benjamin Muschko is a member of the Gradleware engineering team and the author of several popular Gradle plugins.

    With regular tune-ups, your team will hum like a precise, world-class orchestra. Change is difficult but essential—Esther Derby offers seven guidelines for change by attraction, an approach that draws people into the process so that instead of resisting change, they embrace it. Change is a given as modern organizations respond to market and technology advances, make improvements, and evolve practices to meet new challenges. This is not a simple process on any level. Often, there is no indisputable right answer, and responding requires trial and error, learning and unlearning. Whatever you choose to do, it will interact with existing policies and structures in unpredictable ways.

    And there is, quite simply, a natural human resistance to being told to change. When you work by attraction, you give space and support for people to feel the loss that comes with change and help them see what is valuable about the future you propose. Resistance fades because people feel there is nothing to push against—only something they want to move toward.

    Learning UML 2. Topics covered include: Capturing your system's requirements in your model to help you ensure that your designs meet your users' needs Modeling the parts of your system and their relationships Modeling how the parts of your system work together to meet your system's requirements Modeling how your system moves into the real world, capturing how your system will be deployed Engaging and accessible, this book shows you how to use UML to craft and communicate your project's design.

    Integrating legacy systems with Spring, building highly concurrent, grid-ready applications using Gridgain and Terracotta Web Apps, and even creating cloud systems. How to secure applications using Spring Security. About the Book The EJB 3 framework provides a standard way to capture business logic in manageable server-side modules, making it easier to write, maintain, and extend Java EE applications.

    Readers need to know Java. Recipes cover: The basics of lambda expressions and method references Interfaces in the java. Practical JRuby on Rails Web 2. Cliff Click Senior Software Engineer, Azul Systems "I have a strong interest in concurrency, and have probably written more thread deadlocks and made more synchronization mistakes than most programmers. Heinz Kabutz The Java Specialists' Newsletter "I've focused a career on simplifying simple problems, but this book ambitiously and effectively works to simplify a complex but critical subject: concurrency.

    This book covers: Basic concepts of concurrency and thread safety Techniques for building and composing thread-safe classes Using the concurrency building blocks in java.

    Managing Digital: Concepts and Practices

    Duvall, Steve Matyas, and Andrew Glover. This is the eBook version of the printed book. Learn how to install, configure, and secure your Jenkins server Organize and monitor general-purpose build jobs Integrate automated tests to verify builds, and set up code quality reporting Establish effective team notification strategies and techniques Configure build pipelines, parameterized jobs, matrix builds, and other advanced jobs Manage a farm of Jenkins servers to run distributed builds Implement automated deployment and continuous delivery.

    Moving running VMs and storages across different physical platforms without disruption. Optimizing system resources, hardening system securities, backing up VMs and other resources. Leveraging events, alarms, and scheduled tasks to automate the system management. Developing powerful applications that integrate multiple API features and run on top of or alongside VMware platforms.

    Your project is different.